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Open-Source Large
Vocabulary CSR Engine Julius

Open-Source Large Vocabulary CSR Engine Julius

Copyright (c) 1991-2014 Kawahara Lab., Kyoto University
Copyright (c) 1997-2000 Information-technology Promotion Agency, Japan
Copyright (c) 2000-2005 Shikano Lab., Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Julius project team, Nagoya Institute of Technology

What's New?

update: 2014.1.15 Julius rev.4.3.1 released.
update: 2013.12.25 Julius rev.4.3 released.
update: 2013.6.30 Julius rev.4.2.3 released.
update: 2012.8.1: Julius rev.4.2.2 released.
update: 2011.12.25: Julius rev.4.2.1 released.
update: 2011.5.11: Julius rev.4.2 binary packages are now available.
update: 2011.5.1: Julius rev.4.2 released.
update: 2010.12.25: Julius rev. released.
update: 2010.6.4: Julius rev.4.1.5 released and Online documentation is now available.
update: 2009.12.25: Julius rev.4.1.4 released.
update: 2009.11.2: Julius rev.4.1.3 released.
update: 2009.2.12: Julius rev.4.1.2 released.
update: 2008.12.13: Julius rev.4.1.1 released.
update: 2008.10.3: Julius rev.4.1 released with updated manuals.
update: 2008.5.27: Julius rev.4.0.2 released.
update: 2008.3.12: Julius rev.4.0.1 released.
update: 2007.12.19: Julius rev.4.0 released and new Web forum opened!
update: 2006.12.29: Julius rev.3.5.3 released.
update: 2006.7.31: Julius rev.3.5.2 released.
update: 2006.3.31: Julius rev.3.5.1 released.
update: 2005.11.22: Added link to development site.
update: 2005.11.11: Julius rev.3.5 released.
update: 2004.5.7: Julius rev.3.4.2 released.
update: 2004.3.5: Forced alignment tool using Julian is now released.
update: 2004.3.1: Julius rev.3.4.1, Julius for SAPI ver.2.3 released.

About Julius

"Julius" is a high-performance, two-pass large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) decoder software for speech-related researchers and developers. Based on word N-gram and context-dependent HMM, it can perform almost real-time decoding on most current PCs in 60k word dictation task. Major search techniques are fully incorporated such as tree lexicon, N-gram factoring, cross-word context dependency handling, enveloped beam search, Gaussian pruning, Gaussian selection, etc. Besides search efficiency, it is also modularized carefully to be independent from model structures, and various HMM types are supported such as shared-state triphones and tied-mixture models, with any number of mixtures, states, or phones. Standard formats are adopted to cope with other free modeling toolkit such as HTK, CMU-Cam SLM toolkit, etc.

The main platform is Linux and other Unix workstations, and also works on Windows. Most recent version is developed on Linux and Windows (cygwin / mingw), and also has Microsoft SAPI version. Julius is distributed with open license together with source codes.

Julius has been developed as a research software for Japanese LVCSR since 1997, and the work was continued under IPA Japanese dictation toolkit project (1997-2000), Continuous Speech Recognition Consortium, Japan (CSRC) (2000-2003) and currently Interactive Speech Technology Consortium (ISTC).



For any questions, e-mail to julius-info at

The chief developer and maintainer of Julius (Unix) is LEE Akinobu (ri at

A forum has been opened. Please post questions, look for information, or share knowledges in Julius forum.

Latest version: 4.3.1

The latest version is 4.3.1, released on January 15, 2014.

Version 4.3.1 is a bug fix release. Several bugs has been fixed.

See the "Release.txt" file for the full list of updates.
Run with "-help" to see full list of options.

Download Julius

Note: you should prepare a language model and an acoustic model to run a speech recognition with Julius, See About Models below.

Get current version

You can get old version from Development site.

Get the latest codes via CVS

You can get the current snapshot of source tree via anonymous CVS:
cvs -z3 co julius4
Please note that current CVS repository has moved to "julius4" instead of "julius". You can also receive update notices by subscribing to Messages will be sent each time the source has been changed on the CVS. Anyone can subscribe from management page.

Get Julius for Windows SAPI

Julius for SAPI is MS Windows version of Julius/Julian which implements Microsoft(R) Speech API (SAPI) 5.1. You can use this version of Julius as a SAPI Voice Recognizer in applications created for SAPI (e.g. Office XP).

The recent version is fully SAPI-5.1 compliant, and it also supports SALT extension.

Julius for SAPI assumes that the user language and the application's grammar is in Japanese. So it is a little troublesome in case of the other languages because Julius for SAPI does not know the pronunciation of the words in a grammar. If you define pronunciations to each of these, it may work, but we have not tried it.

Please read following documents for detail.

Download: you should install both of them. (last updated: 2004/02/05 for ver. 2.3)

Related Tools

word / phoneme segmentation kit

This toolkit helps performing "forced alignment" with speech recognition engine Julius with grammar-based recognition. This kit uses Julius to do forced alignment to a speech file by generating grammar for each samples from transcription.

HTK-to-Julius grammar converter

This toolkit converts an HTK recognition grammar into Julian format. A word network (SLF) will be converted to DFA format, and the words in the SLF are extracted from the dictionary to be used in Julian. Furthermore, word category will be automatically detected and defined to optimize performance in Julian.

About Models

Since Julius itself is a language-independent decoding program, you can make a recognizer of a language if given an appropriate language model and acoustic model for the target language. The recognition accuracy largely depends on the models.

Julius adopts acoustic models in HTK ascii format, pronunciation dictionary in almost HTK format, and word 3-gram language models in ARPA standard format (forward 2-gram and reverse 3-gram trained from same corpus).

We had already examined English dictations with Julius, and another researcher has reported that Julius has also worked well in English, Slovenian (see pp.681--684 of Proc. ICSLP2002), French, Thai language, and many other Languages.

Here you can get Japanese and English free language/acoustic models.

If you have any language or acoustic model that can be distributed as a freeware, would you please contact us? We want to run dictation kit on various languages other than Japanese, and share them freely to provide a free speech recognition system available for various languages.

Documents and Notes


We are also making a complete documentation of Julius, fully updated for the current version. The document is called "Juliusbook", and its initial release has been done in Japanese. We are now making English version.

How to write a grammar for Julius

The format of recognition grammar for Julius is briefly described here.



4.3.1 (2014.1.15)
Fixed bugs:
- Compilation error on OS X.
- Unnecessary debug messages in adintool.
- Several bugs around reading / applying "-cmnload".
4.3 (2013.12.25)
New features:
- FBANK and MELSPEC support.
- Network-based feature vector and outprob vector input.
- Static mean/variance for cepstral mean/variance normalization.
- State output probability (i.e. outprob) vector input for DNN-HMM decoding.
- State ID "" extension of hmmdefs for DNN-HMM decoding.
- Real-time feature extraction and network transmittion by 'adintool'.

- "mkbinhmm" now keeps the state order and id of the original hmmdefs.
- For portaudio, pause / resume operation synced between engine and audio I/O
- Load / save cepstral mean/variance of CMN/CVN in HTK text format.

New options:
  [-input vecnet]       read feature / outprob vectors from network
  [-input outprob]      read outprob vectors from HTK parameter file
  [-outprobout [file]]  save computed outprob vectors to HTK file (for debug)
4.2.3 (2013.6.30)
New features:
- Add function "j_reload_adddict()" to reload dictionaries.
- Add option "-lvscale factor" and func "j_adin_change_input_scaling_factor()"
to scale the amplitude of captured audio by the factor.
- Add option "-rejectlong msec" to reject too long input.
- Add minimum bayes risk decoding, contributed by H. Nanjo and R. Furutani
- Support binary N-gram symbol charset conversion by "mkbingram".

- Fix sending audio stream via network with incorrect byte order at
big-endian machines.
- Fix occasional failure of closing audio device at j_close_stream().
- Fix segfault when reading binary hmm created at 64bit env. with embedded parameters.
- Fix memory leak when failed to read an N-gram file.
- Fix memory leak when input length overflow is detected.
- Fix unable to load feature vector plugin.
- Update microphone input code for recent MacOSX.
4.2.2 (2012.8.1)
- Now can be compiled without flex library
- Fix failure of reading binary N-gram when compiled with "--enable-words-int"
- Fix incorrect handling of file paths with backslash in jconf file at Windows
- Fix segfault when reading an errorous word dictionary.
- Fix occasional segfault which may occur while search.
4.2.1 (2011.12.25)
New features:
- Add support for per-word insertion penalty setting at grammar
  recognition. You can set different word insertion score for each word
  entry at .dict file. For example, if you have an entry
        15 [a] a
  in .dict file and want to assign word insertion score of "-2.0" to
  this word, you can write like this:
        15 @-2.0 15 [a] a
  The figure after "@" is the insertion penalty. The third
  element should be the same as the first element.

- New option "-chunk_size" can specify the audio fragment size in
  number of samples. The default value is 1000.

- At "adintool", enable input detection by default for standard input.

Fixed bugs:
- (IMPORTANT) CMN is not performed for C0 coef.  This bug exists in
  the versions from 4.1.3 to 4.2.
- "-forcedict" won't work for additional dictionaries given by "-adddict".
- Corrupted header of recorded WAV file when interrupted by CTRL+C.
- Occasional segfault when reading a wrongly formatted dictionary.
- Won't compile with configure option "--enable-word-graph".
- Segfault of "mkbingram" and "generate-ngram" at cygwin.
4.2 (2011.5.1)
New features:
- Additional score-based pruning at the 1st pass.  It is disabled by
  default, you can enable by using an option "-bs arg". The argument
  is score range.
- New support for PulseAudio (--with-mictype=pulseaudio)
- New Option "-adddict", "-addword" to read additional dictionaries / words.
- Portaudio library updated to V19.  Audio capture device can be
  changed by env. "PORTAUDIO_DEV_NUM".  The device list will be
  output at start up.

Changed behavior:
- "mkbinhmmlist" now saves pseudo phone list extracted from AM for
  faster start up. The output should be used with the same AM
  specified at generation.  Note that the converted binhmmlist file
  can not be used with older Julius.
- Audio library linking was modified at configure script.
  When "--with-mictype=..." is explicitly specified, Julius will link
  ONLY the audio library.  If not specified, Julius will link all the
  audio devices whose development file was detected by the configure.

Library functions:
- j_config_load_string_new(char *str): like j_config_load_file(), but
  parse the given string to set parameters.
- add_dict(), add_word(): the same as "-adddict" and "-addword".
  (They should be called at start up before starting engine)
- (portaudio/Windows) j_open_stream(recog, NUMSTR) to choose device NUM.
  ex. 'j_open_stream(recog, "1")' will open device number one.
- (portaudio/Windows) get_device_list(): obtain list of available devices.

- Improved tree lexicon structure for better memory management.
- Reduce malloc calls at reading N-gram.
- Eliminated memory leaks using Valgrind.
- Workarounds to avoid crash with j_close_stream().
- Now allow "-iwsp" only with multi-path acoustic model. (2010.12.25)
 - Fixed problem related to the license.
4.1.5 (2010.6.4)
Bug fixes:
 - Language model / decoding (these bugs may affect the ASR performance):
   - Several wrong word insertion penalty handling on grammar was found and fixed.
   - Now correctly add the prob. of the first word at the second pass.
 - MFCC computation:
   - Support MFCC computation when liftering parameter (CEPLIFTER) = 0.
 - Compilation:
   - Fixes to build Julius on cygwin and MSVC.
   - Supports "gcc -mno-cygwin" on cygwin.
   - Compilation error with configure "--disable-plugin"
 - Module mode:
   - Unable to send grammar from jcontrol.
   - Not working "DELPROCESS" command when SR and LM has different names.
 - Other fixed bugs:
   - wrong parsing of "-mapunk" option.
   - "-htkconf" in a jconf file now correctly handles the file path as relative to the jconf file.
   - "-input stdin" now supports WAV format.
   - not working "-plugin DIRNAME" on Win32/MSVC.
4.1.4 (2009.12.25)
New feature:
 - added function to choose input audio device on MSVC compiled Julius,
   by specifying a device ID with env. var. "PORTAUDIO_DEV_NUM".
   The available device IDs will be listed in the system log at start up.
 - You can now set a locale for a LM in Julius.cpp.

Bug fixes:
 - now can be compield on Mac OS X (OS X 10.6 SDK).
 - fixes around portaudio for smaller latency and compatibility (Windows).
4.1.3 (2009.11.2)
New features:
 - new MSVC support: please read "msvc/00README.txt"
 - extended N-gram to support arbitrary N
 - portaudio external library (V19) can be used instead of internal V18.
   When configure detects portaudio library installed in your system,
   Julius will use it instead of internal V18.  You can also choose
   input device by "PORTAUDIO_DEV" env. var. at V19library.  See the
   log text at start up to know how to set it.
 - allow word alignment output (-walign) in module mode

 - ! now Julius do not perform CMN on 0'th cepstral coefficients,
   which is the same as the old 4.0.x versions.
 - j_get_current_filename() added on JuliusLib
 - improved "--enable-wpair" handling

Bug fixes:
 - many bugs around audio open/close API on JuliusLib
 - fail to do make in julius-simple
 - unable to record inputs at cygwin
 - segfault on adintool with "-server"
 - occasional segfault at grammar recognition
4.1.2 (2009.2.12)
[SRILM support]
- Added swapping "<s>" and "</s>" when reading BACKWARD ARPA file trained by SRILM. It will be automatically detected. If detection fails, you can specify an option "-swap" in mkbingram to do that.
- Internally modify the unigram probability of "<s>" or "</s>", since they may be set to "-99" in SRILM model. The same value as opposite will be assigned.
- Size limit extended from 2GB to 4GB for big N-gram.
- "<unk>" and "<UNK>" can be changed by "-mapunk".
- More strict check for unknown words: Julius now terminates with error when dictionary has OOV words and N-gram is not open (no unk word).
- Faster successor list building algorithm
- Update to cover more minor Japanese pronunciation.
- Workaround for audio buffer overrun in ALSA
- Added API function "j_close_stream()" to exit main recognition loop.
[Bug Fixes]
- Fixed segfault on adintool when specifying multiple servers.
- Fixed compilation error on cygwin (libesd)
- Fixed segfault when not specifying "-input" option.
4.1.1 (2008.12.13)
Bug fixes:

- sometimes could not read an ARPA N-gram file trained by SRILM.
- "-input stdin" does not work.
- "SOURCERATE" at "-htkconf" is ignored.
[Forced alignments]
- now can be used in isolated word recognition and with "-1pass".
- "-palign", "-walign" and "-salign" can not be run together at a time.
[Module mode]
- freezes when a grammar is specified by its ID number.
- wrong grammar ID in recognition result (GRAM=.. always 0)
- "SYNCGRAM" will cause crash at isolated word recognition.
- unable to receive/activate/dactivate on isolated word recognition.
- fails to compile on several OS (needs "-ldl").
- does not handle backslash escaping correctly in Jconf file.
- does not output the 1st pass result as a final result with "-1pass".
- does not support "graminfo" command.
- can not send a dictionary to Julius running isolated word recognition.
- segfault on mkfa
- fails to read a grammar file on DOS format.
- wrong behavior when splitting a long audio file.
- now output time of each segment.
4.1 (2008.10.03)
New plugin extension:
  - supported types:
      - A/D-in plugin
      - feature vector input plugin
      - audio input monitor / postprocess plugin
      - feature vector monitor / postprocess plugin
      - result plugin
      - can add arbitrary JuliusLib callback via plugin
  - sample codes is included, with full documentation of function spec.
  - run on Linux, Windows and other unix variants with dlopen() capability

Newly supported features:
  - multi-stream feature input
  - MSD-HMM (compatible with "HTS" toolkit)
  - CVN 
  - frequency warping for VTLN (no estimation yet)
  - "-input alsa", "-input oss" and "-input esd"
  - perl version of jcontrol client "jclient-perl"

  - Restrict option orders when multiple instances defined (-AM, -LM, -SR):
      - Option should be just after correspondence instance declaration. 
        (ex. LM options should be placed after "-LM" and before other 
        instance declaration.)
      - Global option should be before any instance declaration, or
        just after "-GLOBAL" option.
    This new restriction can be removed by "-nosectioncheck" option.

Fixed bugs:
  - "-record" fails to record the first silence part!
  - Not working "-multigramout"
  - environment variable expansion sometimes fail within jconf file.
  - limits extended:
     maximum HMM name length = 256 char, Number of HMM states unlimited.
  - Module mode error message on grammar command.

  - Alpha version of "Juliusbook" (contains only manuals at this time)
  - Unix manuals are moved to "man" directory.
4.0.2 (2008.05.27)
New features:

  - New option "-fallback1pass" will output 1st pass result as final result
    when the 2nd pass fails.
  - Added support for "USEPOWER=T" on feature extraction.

  - "-AM_GMM" becomes optional: GMM will share AM params if not specified.

  - GMM rejection does not work (since 4.0.1)
  - Cannot specify other A/D device on Linux/ALSA correctly.
  - Sometimes fails to read a big N-gram.
  - Sometimes crush with "-record" option.
  - Callback timing modified on real-time input with sp-segment/GMM/VAD.
  - Other minor fixes.
4.0 (2007.12.19)
- Re-constructed all data structures and re-organize source code.
- Core engine now becomes a library called JuliusLib, with API and callbacks.
- Multi-model decoding now available.
- Modularize language model handling, and merge Julian to JuliusLib.
- Support longer N-gram (N > 3).
- User-defined LM function support.
- Handy isolated word recognition mode.
- Confusion network output.
- Improvements in short-pause segmentation, especially for live input.
- GMM-based VAD.
- Decoder-based VAD.
- Integrated many compile-time options.
- Reduce memory usage.
- Sample application to use the JuliusLib is included: "julius-simple".
- Update tools:
   - "adintool" supports multi-server mode.
   - "generate-ngram" newly added to generate sentences from N-gram
3.5.3 (2006.12.29)
  o  Improved Performance:
     - acoustic computation optimized: now becomes 20%-40% faster!
     - optimize memory access: re-use work area of deleted hypothesis
       in the 2nd pass.
     - some memory allocation improvement on dictionary and word trellis.

  o  New Grammar Tools:
     - "dfa_minimize", "dfa_determinize" will minimize/determinize DFA. now calls dfa_mimize in it.
     - "slf2dfa": a toolkit to convert HTK slf to Julian dfa (separate kit)

  o  Embedding HTK Acoustic Parameters:
     - add option to load HTK Config file to set correct acoustic parameter
       configuration at recognition time. 
     - the acoustic parameter configuration can be embedded into
       header of a binary HMM file.

  o  Improved Word Graph:
     - add an option to completely separate graph words: words with
       different phone contexts can be output separatedly by
       "-graphrange -1".

  o  Support for online energy normalization:
     - Preliminary support for live recognition using acoustic model with
       energy normalization. (approximate with maximum energy of last input)

  o  Code refinements:
     - re-organize libsent/src/wav2mfcc.
     - modularize acoustic parameter (Value) handling.
     - output compile-time configuration of libsent with "--setting" option.
     - Doxygen 1.5.0 support.
     - "" becomes the official contact address.
     - fixed typo on copyright notice.

  o  Fixed bugs:
     - sometimes unable to read a binary LM on "--enable-words-int".
     - memory leaks around option handling, global variables and local buffers.
     - segmentation fault on very long input.
     - doublely counted initial state of DFA.
     - unable to find mkfa on some OS.
     - adintool: makes empty output file on termination.
     - adintool: miss last inputs when killed.
     - other small changes.
3.5.2 (2006.07.31)
  o  Speed-up and improvement on Windows console:
     - Support DirectSound for better input handling
     - Support input threading utilizing callback API on portaudio.
     - Support newest MinGW (tested on 5.0.2)

  o  More accurate word graph output:
     - Add option to cut the resulting graph by its depth
       (option -graphcut, and enabled by default!)
     - Set limit for post-processing loop to avoid infinite loop
       (option -graphboundloop, and set by default)
     - Refine graph generation algorithm concerning dynamic word merging
       and search termination on the second pass.

  o  Add capability to output word graph instead of trellis on 1st pass:
     - 1st pass generates word graph instead of word trellis as
       intermediate result by specifying "--enable-word-graph".
       In that case, the 2nd pass will be restricted on the graph, not
       on the whole trellis.
     - With "--enable-word-graph" and "--enable-wpair" option, the
       first pass of Julius can perform 1-pass graph generation based
       on 2-gram with basically the same algorithm as other popular
       word graph based decoders.

  o  Bug fixes:
     - configure script did not work on Solaris 8/9
     - "-gprune none" did not work on tied-mixture AM
     - Incorrect error message for AM with duration header other than "NULLD"
     - Always warns about zero frame stripping upon MFCC

  o  Imprementation improvements:
     - bmalloc2-based AM memory management
3.5.1 (2006.03.31)
  o  Wider MFCC types support:
     - Added extraction of acceleration coefficients (_A).  Now you
       can recognize waveform or microphone input with AM trained with _A.
     - Support all MFCC qualifiers (_0, _E, _N, _D, _A, _N, _Z) and their
     - Support for any vector lenth (will be guessed from AM header)
     - New option: "-accwin"
     - New option "-zmeanframe": frame-wise DC offset removal, like HTK
     - New options to specify detailed analysis parameters (see manual):
          -preemph, -fbank, -ceplif, -rawe / -norawe, 
          -enormal / -noenormal, -escale, -silfloor

  o Improved microphone / network recognition by MAP-CMN:
     - New option "-cmnmapweight" to change MAP weight
     - Option "-cmnload" can be used to specify the initial cepstral
       mean at startup
     - Cepstral mean of last 5 second input is used as an initial mean
       for each input.  You can inhibit updating of the initial mean
       and keep the value loaded by "-cmnload" by option "-cmnnoupdate".

  o Module issue:
     - Julius now outputs "" when recognition starts, and
       "" after recognition stopped by module command.
       Use this for safer server-client synchronization.
     - now can specify grammar name from client by specifying a name
       after a command like "ADDGRAM name" or "CHANGEGRAM name".

  o Bug fixes:
     - Sometimes segfault on pause/resume command on module mode while input.
     - Can not read N-gram with tuples > 2^24.
     - Can not read HMM with 3-state (1 output state) model on multi-path.
     - Sometimes omit the last transition definition in DFA file.
     - Sometimes fails to compile the gramtools on MacOSX.
3.5 (2005.11.11)
  o  New features:
     - Input verification / rejection using GMM (-gmm, -gmmnum, -gmmreject)
     - Word graph output (--enable-graphout, --enable-graphout-nbest)
     - Pruning on 2nd pass based on local posterior CM (--enable-cmthres)
     - Multiple/per-grammar recognition (-gram, -gramlist, -multigramout) 
     - Can specify multiple grammars at startup: "-gram prefix1,prefix2,..."
       or "-gramlist listfile" where listfile contains list of prefixes.
     - General output character set conversion "-charconv from to"
       based on iconv (Linux) or Win32API+libjcode (Windows)

  o  Improved audio inputs on Linux:
     - ALSA-1.x support. (--with-mictype=alsa)
     - EsounD daemon input support. (--with-mictype=esd)
     - Fixed some bugs on USB audio input.
     - Audio capturing device can be specified via env. "AUDIODEV".
     - Extra microphone API support using portaudio and spLib API.

  o  Performance improvements:
     - Reduced memory size for beam operation on the 1st pass.
     - Slightly optimized tree lexicon by removing redundant data.
     - Reduced size of word N-gram index (reduced from 32 bit to 24 bit).

  o  Fixed bugs:
     - Not working spectral subtraction.
     - Memory leak when stack exhausted ("stack empty") on 2nd pass.
     - Segmentation fault on a very short input of 1 to 4 frames.
     - AM trained with no CMN cannot be used with waveform/mic input.
     - Wrong short-pause word handling on successive decoding mode.
     - No output of "maxcodebooksize" at startup.
     - No output of the number of sentences found when stack exhausted.
     - No output of "-separatescore" on module mode.
     - Beam width does not adjusted when grammar has been changed and 
       full beam options (-b 0) is specified in Julian.
     - Wrong update of category-aware cross-word triphones when
       dynamically switching grammar on Julian.
     - No output of grammar to stdout on multiple grammar mode.
     - Unable to send/receive audio data between different endian machines.
     - (Linux) crash when compiled with icc.
     - (Linux) some strange behavior on USB audio.
     - (Windows) confuse with CR/LF newline inputs in several text inputs.
     - (Windows) could not work on cygwin.
     - (Windows) sometimes fails to read a file when not using zlib.
     - (Windows) wrong file suffix when recording with "-record" (.raw->.wav)

  o  Unified source code:
     - Linux and Windows version are integrated into one source.
     - Multi-path version has been integrated with the normal version
       into one source.  The multi-path version of Julius/Julian, that
       allows any transitions of HMMs including model skip transition,
       can be compiled by "--enable-multipath" option.  The part of
       source codes for the multi-path version can be identified 
       by the definition "MULTIPATH_VERSION".

  o  Other improvements:
     - Now can be compiled on MinGW/MSYS on Windows
     - Totally rewritten comments in entire source in Doxygen format.
       You can generate fully browsable source documents in English.
       Try "make doxygen" at the top directory (you need doxygen installed)
     - Install additional executables of julius/julian with version and setting
       names like "julius-3.5-fast" when "make install" is invoked.
     - Updated LICENSE.txt with English translation for reference.

  o  Changed behaviors:
     - Binary N-gram file format has been changed for smaller size.
       The old files can still be read directly by julius, in which
       case on-line conversion will be performed at startup.
       You can convert the old files (3.4.2 and earlier) to the new
       format with the new mkbingram by involing the command below:
	       "mkbingram -d oldbinary newbinary"
       Please note that since mkbingram now output the new format
       file, it can not be read by older Julius.
       The binary N-gram file version can be detected by the first 17
       bytes of the file: old format should be "julius_bingram_v3" and
       new format should be "julius_bingram_v4".
     - Byte order of audio stream via tcpip fixed to LITTLE ENDIAN.
     - Now use built-in zlib by default for compressed files.  This may
       make the engine startup slower, and if you prefer, you can still
       use the previous method using external gzip command by specifying
     - (Windows) Changed the compilation procedure on VC++.  You can build
       Julian by only specifying "-DBUILD_JULIAN" at compiler option,
       and do not need to alter "julius.h".
3.4.2 (2004.05.07)
- New option "-rejectshort msec" to reject short input.
- More stable PAUSE/RESUME on module mode with adinnet input.
- Bug fixes:
  - Memory leak on very short input.
  - Missing Nth result when small vocabulary is used.
  - Hang up of "generate" on small grammar.
- Cosmetic changes:
  - Cleanup codes to confirm for 'gcc -Wall'.
  - Update of config.guess and config.sub.
  - Update of copyright to 2004.
3.4.1 (2004.02.25)
- Search algorithm is slightly modified to make search more stable at
  of 2nd pass.  These modification are enabled by default, and
  MAY IMPROVE THE RECOGNITION ACCURACY as compared with older versions.
  - fixed overcounting of LM score for the expanded word.
  - new inter-word triphone approximation (-iwcd1 best #) on 1st
    pass.  This new algorithm now becomes default.
- Newly supports binary HMM (original format, not compatible with HTK).
  A tool "mkbinhmm" converts a hmmdefs(ascii) file to the binary format.
- MFCC computation becomes faster by sin/cos table lookup.
- Bugs below have been fixed:
  - (-input adinnet) recognition does not start immediately after speech
		     inputs begin when using adinnet client.
  - (-input adinnet) together with module mode, speech input cannot
		     stop by pause/terminate command.
  - (-input adinnet) unneccesary fork when connecting with adinnet client.
  - (-input rawfile) error in reading wave files created by Windows
                     sound recorder.
  - (CMN) CMN was applied any time even when acoustic models does not want.
  - (AM) numerous messages in case of missing triphone errors at startup.
  - (adintool) immediately exit after single file input.
  - (sp-segment) fixed many bugs relating short pause word and LM
  - (sp-segment) wow it works with microphone input.
  - (-[wps]align) memory leak on continuous input.
- Add option to remove DC offset from speech input (option -zmean).
- (-module) new output message:
  '<INPUTPARAM FRAMES="input_frame_length" MSEC="length_in_msec">'
- Optional feature "Search Space Visualization" is added (--enable-visualize)
- HTML documentations greatly revised in doc.

New argument: "-iwcd1 best #" "-zmean"
New configure option: "--disable-lmfix", "--enable-visualize"
3.4 (2003.10.01)
- Confidence measure support
  - New parameter "-cmalpha" as smoothing coef.
  - New command "-outcode C" to output CM in module output
  - Can be disabled by configure option "--disbale-cm"
  - Can use an alternate CM algorithm by configure option "--enable-cm-nbest"
- Class N-gram support
  - Can be disabled by configure option "--disable-class-ngram"
  - Factoring basis changed from N-gram entry to dictionary word
- WAV format recording in "adinrec", "adintool" and "-record" option
- Modified output message
    startup messages,
    engine configuration message in --version and --help,
- Fixes:
    some outputs in module mode,
    bug in only several frame input (realtime-1stpass.c),
    long silence at end of segmented speech
    miscompilation with NetAudio,
    word size check in binary N-gram,
    bug in acoustic computation (gprune_none.c).
    "-version" -> "-setting", "-hipass" -> "-hifreq", "-lopass" -> "-lofreq"
3.3p4 (2003.05.06)
- Fixes around audio input:
  - Fix segfault/hangup when microphone input runs for a long period.
  - Fix client hangup when input speech is too long in module mode.
    (now send an buffer overflow message to the client instead of hangup)
  - Fix audio buffering for very short input (<1000 samples).
  - Fix blocking in tcpip adin.
- Some cosmetic changes (jcontrol, LOG_TEN, etc.)
3.3p3 (2003.01.10)
- New inter-word short pause handling:
  - [Julius] New option added for short pause handling.  Specifying
    "-iwspword" adds a short-pause word entry, namely " [sp] sp sp",
    to the dictionary.  The entry content to be changed by using "-iwspentry".
  - [multi-path] Supports inter-word context-free short pause handling.
    "-iwsp" option automatically appends a skippable short pause model at
    every word end.  The added model will also be ignored in context
    modeling.  The short pause model to be appended by "-iwsp" can be
    specified by "-spmodel" options.  See documents for details.
- Fixes for audio input:
   - Input delay improved: the initial response to mic input now
     becomes much faster than previous versions (200ms -> 50ms approx.).
   - Would not block when other process is using the audio device, but
     just output error and exit.
   - Update support for libsndfile-1.0.x.
   - Update support for ALSA-0.9.x 
     (to use this, add "--with-mictype=alsa" to configure option.)
patch for libsndfile-1.0.x (2002.11.19)
- This patch fixes compilation error with libsndfile > 1.0.x.
3.3p2 (2002.11.18)
- Newly supports model-skip transition.  From this version, you can
  use "any" type of state transition in HTK format for acoustic model.
  (see Bugs above for limitation).
- add new feature: "-record dir" records speech inputs sucessively
  into the specified directory.
- fix segfault on Solaris with "-input mfcfile".
- fix adin-cut bug when using module mode and adinnet together.
- fix output flush after last recognition output.
3.3p1 (2002.10.15)
Fixed the following bugs:
- Fixed incorrect default value of language weights for second pass (-lmp2).
- Fixed sometimes read failure of dictionary file.
- Fixed wrong output of "-separatescore" together with monophone

3.3 (2002.09.12)
The updates and new features from rev.3.2 is as shown below.

- New features added:
	- Server module mode - control Julius (input on/off, grammar switching)
	  from other client process via network.
	- Online grammar changing and multi-grammar recognition supported.
- Noise robustness:
	- Spectral subtraction incorporated.
- Support more variety of acoustic models:
	- "multi-path version" is available that allows any transition
	   including loop, skip and parallel transition.
- A little improvement of recognition performance by bug fixes
- Other minor extensions (CMN parameter saving, etc.)
- Many bug fixes

English documents are available in
  o online manuals (will be installed by default), and
  o Translated full documentation in PDF format: Julius-3.2-book-e.pdf.
We are sorry that current release contains only documents for old rev.3.2.
We are now working to update it to catch up with the current rev.3.3 version.

Open-Source Large Vocabulary CSR Engine Julius
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